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COMM2240 International Media: Citing Sources

Why do I need to cite?

You must cite your source of information any time you use another person’s ideas, opinion or theory. You must also provide citations for any facts, statistics, graphs, or drawings that are not common knowledge. Quotations of another person's actual spoken or written word and paraphrases of another person's spoken or written words must also be cited.

For additional information about citing sources and avoiding plagiarism, please visit Purdue University's Online Writing Lab

Citing Sources

Most Communication research courses will require you to use the APA Style for citing your sources. 

Below are examples of citing various sources, including websites. Remember, APA requires double spacing and hanging indents. 

Company report: Hoover's. (n.d.). The Walt Disney Company. [Company profile]. Retrieved January 4, 2022 from

IBIS World industry report. Le, T. (2021, Sept.). Arts, entertainment and recreation in the U.S. Thrills and chills: Revenue is expected to recover as sector establishments are permitted to reopen: Industry Report 71. IBIS World. Retrieved January 4, 2022 from

Statista database: Pro Football Reference. (February 14, 2022). Super Bowls won by NFL team from 1967 to 2022 [Graph]. Statista.

The table below is from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Individual author on a organization/news website: Butler, S. (2022, January 11). Journalists at the Beijing Winter Olympics may test China’s tolerance for critical coverage. Committee to Protect Journalists.

Government agency: Central Intelligence Agency. (2022, February 8). China. In The World Fact Book.

Newspaper article: Morgan, E. (2022, February 15). Next phase of Covid rule relaxations will go ahead as planned tomorrow. The Connection.

When author & site name are the same, omit the site name from the source. Reporters without Borders. (2022, February 12). Indian government must end intimidation campaigns against columnist, RSF says.


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